What is the diabetes?
Diabetes is the term that is commonly used to identify several metabolic disorders in which the body does not produce insulin, or uses insulin that produces inefficiently. It is a common condition that is characterized by high blood sugar levels.
Diabetes is known as “diabetes mellitus”: The word
diabetes comes from the Greek siphon, which describes excessive thirst and
increased frequency of urine and mellitus which means honey in Latin, because
the urine is full of sugar and is sweet.
Diabetes modifies the way the body processes food.
Insulin is the key to the problem, since the function of insulin
in the body is to help glucose penetrate the cells where it is used to produce
energy. Diabetes is characterized by a total or partial lack of insulin
production by the body. The most common forms of diabetes are type 1
diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In both cases, people do not have the ability to
mobilize sugar out of the bloodstream into cells, where it is used as the
primary source of fuel for the organism. Best medication for the
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Symptoms and complications
Symptoms of diabetes include :
- Increase in the frequency and amount of urine
- Constant need to hydrate
- Increase in appetite
- Wounds that are slow to heal
For the treatment of diabetes, it is essential that people learn to manage it in the best way. If diabetes is not properly controlled, it can lead to an increased risk of:
- Heart diseases
- Cerebrospinal accidents
- Renal insufficiency
- Infections in the legs and feet
Is diabetes a common disorder?
According to the World Health Organization, more than 347 million
people around the world suffer from diabetes. Of this figure, 90% have
type 2 diabetes and 10% type 1 diabetes.
There are two main types of diabetes:
Diabetes type 1
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that is treated with insulin
injections. Insulin should be applied every day and some people require
multiple daily injections to maintain controlled blood glucose
levels. This type of diabetes is triggered when an “autoimmune
reaction” destroys the beta cells found in the pancreas. An
autoimmune reaction means that the body creates antibodies against its own
cells and as a result, the pancreas stops producing insulin or can not produce
enough of its own. The treatment consists of daily injections of insulin,
along with a healthy diet and exercise.
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are:
- Constant need to hydrate
- Frequency in urine
- Sugar in the urine
- Smell like acetone in the body
- Fatigue, weakness and drowsiness
- Unexplained weight loss in a short period of time.
Although the causes of diabetes are unknown, there are certain factors that can increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, such as:
- Ethnicity or race (more common in people of Caucasian descent)
- One of the parents with type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes most often affects people under 20 years of
age. It used to be known as juvenile diabetes or Insulin-Dependent
Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes comprises several disorders with different causes and degrees of severity. It is the most common type of diabetes. Often, the pancreas of people with type 2 diabetes produce their own insulin, but the body does not use it effectively. Many people manage this type of diabetes simply by following a healthy diet and exercising. In overweight people, diabetes improves as a result of a healthy diet, physical activity and weight loss.
As the disease progresses, some people should take oral medications or take insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes. Although the causes of type 2 diabetes are unknown, there are risk factors that predispose some people such as:
- Age (over 45 years)
- Being overweight or obese
- Have a family history of diabetes
- Ethnic origin or race (native / indigenous, African, Spanish or Asian ancestry)
- Having given birth to a child weighing more than 4kg
- Deterioration in glucose intolerance
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are the same as those of type 1
diabetes. Some people may experience cuts or bruises that are slow to heal,
recurrent infections of the gums or urine, or tingling of the hands and
feet. Other names that have been previously used for type 2 diabetes are
adult diabetes and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
How to treat diabetes
Many years ago, before the control of glucose levels in the blood
was understood, diabetes seriously affected people who suffered from it and
caused their early death. Currently, new diabetes treatment plans have
things in common that apply to the two main types of diabetes. With the
help of a medical team, people with diabetes can lead a normal and healthy
life, combined with proper nutrition, exercise and medicines (if necessary)
along with proper control of blood glucose levels.
It does not require a strict diet, there is a wide variety of options to choose from. The main points to consider are:
- The types of foods you select
- The amount of food you eat
- The interval between meals
It is known that physical activity contributes to insulin acting
better in the body. At the same time, it keeps you healthy so you can
fight the disease. Physical activity is also important if you want to lose
Currently, insulin is much safer and easier to use than when it was first introduced in 1921. There are new ways to apply relatively painless and simple injections that you can take the devices with you, as if it were a spheron.
Some people with type 2 diabetes take oral medications or pills to
control blood sugar levels. The pills are not insulin, but they contribute
to the insulin that the pancreas produces naturally acting properly.
Blood glucose test
These tests are simple and can be done every time you need to know
your glucose level and at the same time it indicates the effectiveness of the
treatment. With the right information, education and guidance from your
treating doctor and diabetes educator, you can learn how to manage it.
If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, you may be able to
continue to lead a healthy and long life. However, you will have to take
good care of yourself. To start you will have to monitor your blood sugar
levels. This monitoring will not only show how your physical activity and
diet affect your blood sugar levels but also reflect if your medicine is
The key elements to stay healthy in the long term are:
- Application of the medicine as prescribed
- Regular exercise
- A healthy diet
- Emotional well-being
From the beginning, it is important that you try to learn what you can about diabetes, have great support from the people around you and maintain a positive attitude and vision in difficult times.